Do you know what to do if you suspect someone is having a stroke? Here is what you need to know, from symptoms to actions you can take
A stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off or reduced because of a ruptured blood vessel or a clot in one of the blood vessels that supplies the brain. The sooner a casualty receives hospital treatment, the better the chances of recovery.
Damage to the brain caused by a stroke affects bodily functions. This can be most obvious in facial expressions, arm movement and speech. If you notice any one of these symptoms, call for emergency help immediately:
- Facial weakness
- Speech problems
- Arm weakness
- Sudden dizziness
- Sudden severe headache
- Sudden blurred vision
- Sudden confusion
- A stroke that results from a burst blood vessel may be accompanied by signs of serious head injury
Do the "FAST" test
A quick test to help check for the most obvious signs of a stroke, FAST requires an assessment of three specific symptoms. If the casualty fails any one of these tests, call for emergency help:
F: Check their face
Look at the casualty. Do you notice any facial weakness? Ask them to smile. If they have had a stroke, they may only be able to smile on one side; the other side of their face may droop.
A: Check their arms
Ask the casualty if they can lift both of their arms. If they have had a stroke, they may only be able to lift one arm, on the same side of the body that they are able to smile.
S: Check their speech
Talk to the casualty. Can they understand what you say and can they speak clearly? If they have had a stroke, their speech may be impaired and they may not understand you.
T: Time to call for emergency help
If the casualty fails any one of these tests, suspect a stroke and call for emergency help immediately. Reassure the casualty. Check and make a note of their level of consciousness, breathing and pulse. Re-check these regularly until help arrives.
WARNING: If the casualty becomes unconscious, open the airway and check for breathing. Be prepared to begin CPR).
Do not give the casualty anything to eat or drink as she could choke and/or the object or fluid can enter the lungs, which leads to further complications. About 50 per cent of stroke casualties have difficulty swallowing (known as dysphagia) afterwards.
Diagnosis will be confirmed in the hospital with brain scans and blood tests. A stroke caused by a blood clot will be treated with drugs that break up the clot, to limit the extent of the brain damage, and minimise the risk of further strokes.
All stroke patients are given a swallow test in the hospital and will only be allowed to drink and eat normally when they can swallow properly.
After a stroke, the dead brain cells will not recover, but the cells around the injured area may start functioning as any swelling goes down. Most recovery happens in the first few months but, depending on the area affected, people can continue to recover for several years.
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